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[学习类] 雅思阅读模拟真题系列01

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曼拓教育 发表于 2016-10-21 17:17:24
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本帖最后由 曼拓教育 于 2016-10-21 17:22 编辑

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曼拓君:很多同学都会觉得已经把剑桥的阅读练习做了很多遍,答案都可以背下来了,所以在这里为大家提供系列阅读模拟题,希望可以为各位考生带来做题的新鲜感,进一步提升自己做题的技巧。


雅思阅读模拟真题:Why did a promising heartdrug fail
本系列的模拟试题在难度、长度、题材、题型方面都与雅思考试近似的练习。这些练习,均以国外报刊上的文章为素材,按雅思阅读的题型,出题并提供答案及简单注释。欢迎大家积极使用。

Why did a promising heart drug fail?

Doomed drughighlights complications of meddling with cholesterol.
1. The failure of a high-profile cholesterol drug hasthrown a spotlight on the complicated machinery that regulates cholesterollevels. But many researchers remain confident that drugs to boost levels of'good' cholesterol are still one of the most promising means to combatspiralling heart disease.

2. Drug company Pfizer announced on 2 December that itwas cancelling all clinical trials of torcetrapib, a drug designed to raiseheart-protective high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). In a trial of 15000patients, a safety board found that more people died or suffered cardiovascularproblems after taking the drug plus a cholesterol-lowering statin than those ina control group who took the statin alone.

3. The news came as a kick in the teeth to manycardiologists because earlier tests in animals and people suggested it wouldlower rates of cardiovascular disease. "There have been no red flags to myknowledge," says John Chapman, a specialist in lipoproteins and atherosclerosisat the National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM) in Paris whohas also studied torcetrapib. "This cancellation came as a completeshock."

4. Torcetrapib is one of the most advanced of a newbreed of drugs designed to raise levels of HDLs, which ferry cholesterol out ofartery-clogging plaques to the liver for removal from the body. Specifically,torcetrapib blocks a protein called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP),which normally transfers the cholesterol from high-density lipoproteins to lowdensity, plaque-promoting ones. Statins, in contrast, mainly work by loweringthe 'bad' low-density lipoproteins.

Under pressure
5. Researchers are now trying to work out why and howthe drug backfired, something that will not become clear until the clinicaldetails are released by Pfizer. One hint lies in evidence from earlier trialsthat it slightly raises blood pressure in some patients. It was thought thatthis mild problem would be offset by the heart benefits of the drug. But it ispossible that it actually proved fatal in some patients who already sufferedhigh blood pressure. If blood pressure is the explanation, it would actually begood news for drug developers because it suggests that the problems arespecific to this compound. Other prototype drugs that are being developed toblock CETP work in a slightly different way and might not suffer the samedownfall.

6. But it is also possible that the whole idea ofblocking CETP is flawed, says MotiKashyap, who directs atherosclerosis researchat the VA Medical Center in Long Beach, California. When HDLs excretecholesterol in the liver, they actually rely on LDLs for part of this process.So inhibiting CETP, which prevents the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL,might actually cause an abnormal and irreversible accumulation of cholesterolin the body. "You're blocking a physiologic mechanism to eliminatecholesterol and effectively constipating the pathway," says Kashyap.

Going up
7. Most researchers remain confident that elevatinghigh density lipoproteins levels by one means or another is one of the bestroutes for helping heart disease patients. But HDLs are complex and notentirely understood. One approved drug, called niacin, is known to both raiseHDL and reduce cardiovascular risk but also causes an unpleasant sensation ofheat and tingling. Researchers are exploring whether they can bypass this sideeffect and whether niacin can lower disease risk more than statins alone.Scientists are also working on several other means to bump up high-densitylipoproteins by, for example, introducing synthetic HDLs. "The only thingwe know is dead in the water is torcetrapib, not the whole idea of raisingHDL," says Michael Miller, director of preventive cardiology at theUniversity of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore.

(613 words nature)

Questions 1-7  
This passage has 7 paragraphs 1-7.Choose the correctheading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i-ix in boxes 1-7 on youranswer sheet.

List of Headings
i. How does torcetrapib work?
ii. Contradictory result prior to the current trial
iii. One failure may possibly bring about futuresuccess
iv. The failure does not lead to total loss ofconfidence
v. It is the right route to follow
vi. Why it is stopped
vii. They may combine and theoretically produce idealresult
viii. Whatis wrong with the drug
ix. It might be wrong at the first place

Example answer:Paragraph 1 iv
1. Paragraph 2
2. Paragraph 3
3. Paragraph 4
4. Paragraph 5
5. Paragraph 6
6. Paragraph 7

Questions 7-13  
Match torcetrapibHDLsstatin and CETPwith their functions (Questions 8-13).
Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes 8-13 onyour answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

1.       It hasbeen administered to over 10,000 subjects in a clinical trial.
2.       It couldhelp rid human body of cholesterol.
3.      Researchers are yet to find more about it.
4.       It wasused to reduce the level of cholesterol.
5.      According to Kashyap, it might lead to unwanted result if it is blocked.
6.       Itproduced contradictory results in different trials.
7.       It couldinhibit LDLs.

List of choices
A. Torcetrapic
B. HDLS
C. Statin
D. CETP

SuggestedAnswers and Explanations
1. vi
2. ii
3. vii 本段介绍了torcetrapibstatin的治病原理,但是同时短语“in contrast”与之前第二段后半段的内容呼应,暗示了这两种药在理论上能相辅相成,是理想的搭配。第一个选项无法涵盖整段意义,故选择i是错误的。
4. iii 本段分析了可能导致torcetrapibl临床试验失败的原因,后半段指出如果以上推测正确,那么未来的药物可借鉴这个试验,设法避免torcetrapib的缺陷,研制出有效的药物。viii选项无法涵盖后半段的意思。
5. ix 见首句。
6. v
7. A 见第二段。题目中administer一词意为“用药”,subject一词为“实验对象”之意。
8. B 见第四段“… to raise levels of HDLs, which ferry cholesterol outof artery-clogging plaques to the liver for removal from the body.”即HDLs的作用最终是将choleserol清除出人体:“… for removalfrom the body”。
9. B 见第四段“But HDLs are complex and not entirely understood.
10. C 见第二段“… plus a cholesterol-lowering statin”,即statin是可以降低cholesterol的。
11. D 见第六段“So inhibiting CETP, might actuallycause an abnormal and irreversible accumulation of cholesterol in the body.
12. A 见第三段。
13. C 见第四段“Statins, in contrast, mainly work by lowering the 'bad'low-density lipoproteins.

  
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