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[学习类] 雅思阅读模拟真题系列5









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曼拓教育 发表于 2016-12-5 14:29:30
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本帖最后由 曼拓教育 于 2016-12-5 14:31 编辑




Study Finds Web Antifraud Measure Ineffective

1. Internet security experts have longknown that simple passwords do not fully defend online bank accounts fromdetermined fraud artists. Now a study suggests that a popular secondarysecurity measure provides little additional protection.

2. The study, produced jointly byresearchers at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, looked ata technology called site-authentication images. In the system, currently usedby financial institutions like Bank of America, ING Direct and Vanguard, onlinebanking customers are asked to select an image, like a dog or chess piece, thatthey will see every time they log in to their account.

3. The idea is that if customers do not seetheir image, they could be at a fraudulent Web site, dummied up to look liketheir bank’s, and should not enter their passwords.

4. The Harvard and M.I.T. researcherstested that hypothesis. In October, they brought 67 Bank of America customersin the Boston area into a controlled environment and asked them to conductroutine online banking activities, like looking up account balances. But theresearchers had secretly withdrawn the images.

5. Of 60 participants who got that far intothe study and whose results could be verified, 58 entered passwords anyway.Only two chose not to log on, citing security concerns.

6.The premise is thatsite-authentication images increase security because customers will not entertheir passwords if they do not see the correct image, said StuartSchechter, a computer scientist at the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. From thestudy we learned that the premise is right less than 10 percent of the time.

7. He added: If a bank were toask me if they should deploy it, I would say no, wait for something better, he said.

8. The system has some high-powersupporters in the financial services world, many trying to comply with newonline banking regulations. In 2005, the Federal Financial InstitutionsExamination Council, an interagency body of federal banking regulators,determined that passwords alone did not effectively thwart intruders likeidentity thieves.

9. It issued new guidelines, askingfinancial Web sites to find better ways for banks and customers to identifyeach other online. January 2007 was set as the compliance date, though thecouncil has yet to begin enforcing the mandate.

10. Banks immediately knew what they didnot want to do: ask customers to download new security software, or carryaround hardware devices that feed them PIN codes they can use to authenticatetheir identities. Both solutions would add an extra layer of security but, thebanks believed, detract from the convenience of online banking.

11. The image system, introduced in 2004 bya Silicon Valley firm called PassMark Security, offered banks a pain-freeaddition to their security arsenals. Bank of America was among the first toadopt it, in June 2005, under the brand name SiteKey, asking its 21 million Website users to select an image from thousands of possible choices and to choosea unique phrase they would see every time they logged in.

12. SiteKey gives our customersa fairly easy way of authenticating the Bank of America Web site, said SanjayGupta, an e-commerce executive at the bank. It was very wellreceived.

13. The Harvard and M.I.T. researchers,however, found that most online banking customers did not notice when theSiteKey images were absent. When respondents logged in during the study, theysaw a site maintenance message on the screen where their image and phrasesshould have been pictured. The error message also had a conspicuous spellingmistake, further suggesting something fishy.

14. Mr. Gupta of Bank of America said hewas not troubled by the results of the survey, and stressed that SiteKey hadmade the banks Web site more secure. He also said that the system was only asingle part of a larger security blanket. Its not likewere betting the bank on SiteKey, he said.

15. Most financial institutions, like Bankof America, have other ways to tell if a customer is legitimate. The banksoften drop a small software program, called a cookie, onto a users PC toassociate the computer with the customer. If the customer logs in from anothermachine, he may be asked personal questions, like his mothers maidenname.

16. Rachna Dhamija, the Harvard researcherwho conducted the study, points out that swindlers can use their dummy Websites to ask customers those personal questions. She said that the studydemonstrated that site-authentication images are fundamentally flawed and,worse, might actually detract from security by giving users a false sense ofconfidence.

17.RSA Security, the company that boughtPassMark last year, has a lot of great data on how SiteKey instills trust and confidenceand good feelings in their customers, Ms. Dhamija said. Ultimatelythat might be why they adopted it. Sometimes the appearance of security is moreimportant than security itself.

(811 words)

Questions 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the information given inthe passage? Please write
  TRUE if the statement agrees with the writer
  FALSE if the statement does not agree with the writer
  NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

1. According to Internet security experts, secondary security measures provide little additional protection against fraud.
2. In the Harvard and MIT study, two subjects did not log on without seeing the correct pictures.
3. According to Schechter, more than 90% of online banking customers studied logged on without seeing the right pictures.
4. The image system is the only security measure that the banks mentioned in the passage have currently.
5. Bank of America is the first bank that adopted the image system.

Questions 6-13
Answer the following questions or complete the following sentences bychoosing NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

6.      What is ING Direct and Vanguard?
7.      What might online banking customers becheated to give at a fraudulent Web site?
8.      What may stop online banking customersfrom using new verification methods?
9.      The key to online banking security is toverify the ______ of customers.
10.      Where is PassMark Security located?
11.      What is the reason why SiteKey is popularamong online banking customers?
12.      What was used instead of images in theHarvard and M.I.T. study?
13.      How many security methods are mentionedin this passage?


Answer keys
1.     第一段“Now a study suggests that a popular secondary security measureprovides little additional protection.”似与问题文字很接近,但是原文中apopular secondary security measure是指特定的一个措施,而非泛指所有secondarysecurity measure。原文没有其它secondary security measure安全有效性的内容。故应选择NG。

2.     见第4、5段内容。第四段 “But the researchers had secretly withdrawn the images.”即研究人员撤下了图形,第五段“Only two chose not to log on, citing security concerns.”,有两个人因为安全考虑未进入。

3.     T 见第6段。

4.     F 见第11、14段。

5.     F 见第11段“Bank of America was among the first to adopt it”,可见首批采用图形识别软件的银行并非Bank of America一家。

6.     A financial institution 见第二段。

7.      (their) passwords 见第三段。

8.     less convenience 见第十段。

9.     identity 见第八、十段。

10.   Silicon Valley 见第十一段。

11.  easy to use 见第十二段。

12.  site maintenance message 见第十三段“When respondents logged in during the study, they saw a site maintenance message on the screen where their image andphrases should have been pictured.”

13.  4 分别见第十段的“download new security software”和“hardware devices that feed them PIN codes”,第十五段的“a small software program, called acookie”,以及本文提到的site-authentication images。

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