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[学习类] 雅思阅读模拟真题系列2——考前继续练!周六考试加油!!!

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2016猴年勋章

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曼拓教育 发表于 2016-12-7 09:41:49
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本帖最后由 曼拓教育 于 2016-12-7 10:16 编辑

雅思阅读模拟真题系列2
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New Weapon To Fight Cancer

1.      British scientists arepreparing to launch trials of a radical new way to fight cancer, which killstumours by infecting them with viruses like the common cold.


2.      If successful, virus therapycould eventually form a third pillar alongside radiotherapy and chemotherapy inthe standard arsenal against cancer, while avoiding some of the debilitatingside-effects.


3.      Leonard Seymour, a professor ofgene therapy at Oxford University, who has been working on the virus therapywith colleagues in London and the US, will lead the trials later this year.Cancer Research UK said yesterday that it was excited by the potential of ProfSeymour's pioneering techniques.


4.      One of the country's leadinggeneticists, Prof Seymour has been working with viruses that kill cancer cellsdirectly, while avoiding harm to healthy tissue. "In principle, you've gotsomething which could be many times more effective than regularchemotherapy," he said.


5.      Cancer-killing viruses exploitthe fact that cancer cells suppress the body's local immune system. "If acancer doesn't do that, the immune system wipes it out. If you can get a virusinto a tumour, viruses find them a very good place to be because there's noimmune system to stop them replicating. You can regard it as the cancer'sAchilles' heel."  


6.      Only a small amount of thevirus needs to get to the cancer. "They replicate, you get a millioncopies in each cell and the cell bursts and they infect the tumour cellsadjacent and repeat the process," said Prof Seymour.


7.      Preliminary research on miceshows that the viruses work well on tumours resistant to standard cancer drugs."It's an interesting possibility that they may have an advantage inkilling drug-resistant tumours, which could be quite different to anythingwe've had before."


8.      Researchers have known for sometime that viruses can kill tumour cells and some aspects of the work havealready been published in scientific journals. American scientists havepreviously injected viruses directly into tumours but this technique will notwork if the cancer is inaccessible or has spread throughout the body.


9.      Prof Seymour's innovativesolution is to mask the virus from the body's immune system, effectivelyallowing the viruses to do what chemotherapy drugs do - spread through theblood and reach tumours wherever they are. The big hurdle has always been tofind a way to deliver viruses to tumours via the bloodstream without the body'simmune system destroying them on the way.


10.  "What we've done is makechemical modifications to the virus to put a polymer coat around it - it's astealth virus when you inject it," he said.


11.  After the stealth virus infectsthe tumour, it replicates, but the copies do not have the chemicalmodifications. If they escape from the tumour, the copies will be quicklyrecognised and mopped up by the body's immune system.


12.  The therapy would be especiallyuseful for secondary cancers, called metastases, which sometimes spread aroundthe body after the first tumour appears. "There's an awful statistic ofpatients in the west ... with malignant cancers; 75% of them go on to die frommetastases," said Prof Seymour.  


13.  Two viruses are likely to beexamined in the first clinical trials: adenovirus, which normally causes acold-like illness, and vaccinia, which causes cowpox and is also used in thevaccine against smallpox. For safety reasons, both will be disabled to makethem less pathogenic in the trial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes touse natural viruses.


14.  The first trials will useuncoated adenovirus and vaccinia and will be delivered locally to livertumours, in order to establish whether the treatment is safe in humans and whatdose of virus will be needed. Several more years of trials will be needed,eventually also on the polymer-coated viruses, before the therapy can beconsidered for use in the NHS. Though the approach will be examined at firstfor cancers that do not respond to conventional treatments, Prof Seymour hopesthat one day it might be applied to all cancers.


(665 words)


Questions 1-6
Do the following statementsagree with the information given in the reading passage?
For questions 1-6 write 
TRUE if the statement agrees with theinformation 
FALSE if the statement contradicts theinformation
NOT GIVEN if there is no information onthis in the passage

1.      Virustherapy, if successful, has an advantage in eliminating side effects.
2.      CancerResearch UK is quite hopeful about Professor Seymour’s work on the virustherapy.
3.      Virus cankill cancer cells and stop them from growing again.
4.      Cancer’sAchilles’ heel refers to the fact that virus may stay safely in a tumour andreplicate.
5.      To infectthe cancer cells, a good deal of viruses should be injected into the tumour.
6.      Researcheson animals indicate that virus could be used as a new way to treatdrug-resistant tumours.

Question 7-9
Basedon the reading passage, choose the appropriate letter from A-D for eachanswer.

1.     Information about researches on viruses killing tumour cells can be found  
(A) on TV  
(B) in magazines  
(C) on internet  
(D) in newspapers


2.      To treattumours spreading out in body, researchers try to  
(A) change the body’s immune system  
(B) inject chemotherapy drugs intobloodstream.  
(C) increase the amount of injection  
(D) disguise the viruses on the way totumours.


3.      When thechemical modified virus in tumour replicates, the copies  
(A) will soon escape from the tumour andspread out.  
(B) will be wiped out by the body’s immunesystem.  
(C) will be immediately recognized by theresearchers.
(D) will eventually stop the tumour fromspreading out.


Questions 10-13
Completethe sentences below. Choose your answers from the list of words. You can onlyuse each word once.
NB:There are more words in the list than spaces so you will not use them all.


In the first clinical trials, scientistswill try to ……10…… adenovirus and vaccinia, so both the viruses will be lesspathogenic than the ……11…….These uncoated viruses will be applied directly tocertain areas to confirm safety on human beings and the right ……12…… needed.The experiments will firstly be ……13……to the treatment of certain cancers 
 
List of Words 
1. dosage   2. Responding    3. smallpox virus  
4. disable    5. natural ones    6. inject  
7. directed   8. treatment     9. cold-like illness
10. kill      11. patients      12. Examined


理论和实践.jpg
没有做题之前不要来偷看答案哦!!!!光看不练可是没有效果的哦!


Answers Keys:

  • 答案:FALSE (见第2段:If successful, virus therapy could eventually form a third pillar alongside radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the standard arsenal against cancer, while avoiding some of the debilitating side-effects. Virus therapy 只能避免一些副作用,而不是根除。)
  • 答案:TRUE (见第3段,特别是最后一句: Cancer Research UK said yesterday that it was excited by the potential of Prof Seymour's pioneering techniques. )
  • 答案:NOT GIVEN (文中没有提到virus可以抑制肿瘤细胞再生长)
  • 答案:TRUE (见第5段第3、4句:这里“cancer’s Achilles' heel”指 “If you can get a virus into a tumour, viruses find them a very good place to be because there's no immune system to stop them replicating.” Achilles' heel的意思是“唯一致命弱点”)
  • 答案:FALSE (见第6段第第1句:Only a small amount of the virus needs to get to the cancer.)
  • 答案:TRUE (见第7段:Preliminary research on mice shows that the viruses work well on tumours resistant to standard cancer drug. ……, which could be quite different to anything we've had before." )
  • 答案:B (见第8段第1、2句:Researchers have known for some time that viruses can kill tumour cells and some aspects of the work have already been published in scientific journals. Journal意思是“日报、期刊、杂志”)
  • 答案:D (见第9段第1句:Prof Seymour's innovative solution is to mask the virus from the body's immune system, …… “mask”的意思是“掩盖、隐蔽、伪装”,在这里和 “disguise”同义。)
  • 答案:B (见第11段第2句: If they escape from the tumour, the copies will be quickly recognised and mopped up by the body's immune system.. “mop up”这里与 “wipe out” 同义,意思是“消灭、歼灭”。)
  • 答案:disable (见第13段最后1句:For safety reasons, both will be disabled to make them less pathogenic in the trial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes to use natural viruses. )
  • 答案:natural ones (见第13段最后1句:For safety reasons, both will be disabled to make them less pathogenic in the trial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes to use natural viruses. )
  • 答案:dosage (见第14段第1句:The first trials will use uncoated adenovirus and vaccinia and will be delivered locally to liver tumours, in order to establish whether the treatment is safe in humans and what dose of virus will be needed.)
  • 答案:directed (见第14段最后1句:Though the approach will be examined at first for cancers that do not respond to conventional treatments, …)


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