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[学习类] 【名师带你背单词】New Scientist精选《我们的细胞已经全面进化》 part 3

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曼拓教育 发表于 2016-12-19 11:57:00
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本帖最后由 曼拓教育 于 2016-12-19 14:38 编辑

【名师带你背单词】New Scientist精选《我们的细胞已经全面进化》
part 3
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《We’ve got the evolution of complex cells inside-out
part 3
来源  New Scientist

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“We think complex cells evolved from theinside out, not the outside in”
As a cell biologist working with yeast,flies and human cells, Buzz had long grown accustomed to staring at theelaborate internal structure of eukaryotes but had never heard a convincingexplanation for the origin of this dazzling complexity. Maybe the inside-outmodel could shed light on this, and on other puzzling features of moderneukaryotes too.

We started exchanging drawings made in snatchedmoments, on napkins and loose sheets of paper, on buses, planes and trains.Looking at these sketches, answers to some unexplained aspects of eukaryoticcell biology seemed to jump off the page: for instance, the model explained whythe ER is directly linked to the bounding membrane of the nucleus, and why theyboth contain chemicals similar to archaeal cell wall components.

Echoes of thepast
The success of this way of thinking gotus wondering whether modern cells retain any echoes of their past in the waythey work. By thinking about the way cells grew and divided as they evolvedinto modern eukaryotes, we were able to make some startling predictions forvarious aspects of cell biology that are currently poorly understood. Forinstance, the inside-out model suggests a role for the ER in determining thepattern of diffusion of molecules within cells, and predictsfunctions for several unstudied proteins in archaea.

To test these predictions, Buzz and hisstudents have begun examining the dynamics of diffusionwithin eukaryotic cells. They will also look at proteins that are shared byeukaryotes and archaea to test their functions and locations within archaealcells, something that will require overcoming the technical challenge ofimaging these cells in sulphuric acid solution at 76 °C, theirpreferred growth conditions. Meanwhile, David is using computational analysisof various genes to test competing ideas about how the ancestors ofmitochondria made a living.

Regardless of whether the inside-out viewprevails, testing these ideas will provide a better understandingof how eukaryotes came to be. This may help to explain why eukaryotesevolved just once on Earth and, in so doing, will shape ourexpectations as to whether other planets might, in addition to microscopicprokaryote-like cells, harbor large and complex organisms such as those thatmake life on Earth so enchanting.



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